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Displaying Records 1-10 of 15729

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Learning from Traffic Data: Evacuation Behavior

The objective of this project is to develop access to real-time collection and analysis of traffic data that can be used to inform the evacuation planning process and enhance the efficiency of operations before and after a disaster presents an interesting opportunity. This work identifies ways to use traffic data to better understand evacuation behavior and to explore ways to integrate traffic data into evacuation planning and response. Analysis of this data is performed and the usefulness of this type of data is then discussed. Hurricane Irene provides a rich source of data on actual behavior during a mandatory evacuation that has important implications for future events including developing strategies for improving situational awareness, and post incident review and planning. These issues are important as the perceived increases in frequency and intensity of weather related events mean that there are increasing pressures to address evacuation issues. The use of traffic data will ultimately allow government to better plan and execute evacuations and help make the corridors used for evacuation more resilient.

OST, USD38,372.00, Active

Learning from Traffic Data: Evacuation Behavior

The objective of this project is to develop access to real-time collection and analysis of traffic data that can be used to inform the evacuation planning process and enhance the efficiency of operations before and after a disaster presents an interesting opportunity. This work identifies ways to use traffic data to better understand evacuation behavior and to explore ways to integrate traffic data into evacuation planning and response. Analysis of this data is performed and the usefulness of this type of data is then discussed. Hurricane Irene provides a rich source of data on actual behavior during a mandatory evacuation that has important implications for future events including developing strategies for improving situational awareness, and post incident review and planning. These issues are important as the perceived increases in frequency and intensity of weather related events mean that there are increasing pressures to address evacuation issues. The use of traffic data will ultimately allow government to better plan and execute evacuations and help make the corridors used for evacuation more resilient.

OST, USD38,372.00, Active

Quantification of System Sensitivity and Probability of Detection (POD)

Determine the sensitivity (probability of detection) of various inspection methods and technologies

, Active

Measuring Pedestrian Exposure Using Personal Electronic Devices

Lack of pedestrian exposure data makes it difficult to understand changes in pedestrian crash rates. While the changes may be due to increases or decreases in exposure, there are a variety of other factors that can influence the changes such as congestion, infrastructure, and pedestrian age and impairment. The inability to separate exposure changes from other factors impairs the ability to design effective countermeasures programs to reduce pedestrian crashes. This project would measure pedestrian exposure using personal electronic devices, such as cell phones or global positioning system (GPS) devices. The first phase of the project will identify existing sources of pedestrian location data to see if any of these sources can be mined for travel data and will develop an operational definition of pedestrian exposure. If possible, use the existing data to develop measure pedestrian exposure. If a good source of location data is not available, an app will be developed for participants to install on their personal cell phones or a device will be distributed to participants to obtain location data. The data will be anonymous and aggregated to discern potential exposure to vehicles. The next step of the project will be a small pilot study to recruit participants and collect exposure data.

NHTSA, USD599,172.00, Active

Impact of Lowering Speed on Pedestrian and Bicyclist Safety

The objective of this study is to assess the extent to which vehicle speeds, pedestrian/bicyclist crashes and conflicts and pedestrian/bicyclist injury severity change as a result of implementation of speed-related programs to improve pedestrian and bicyclist safety. The first phase of the study involves a program scan to determine localities that have implemented speed-related countermeasures on a large scale to increase pedestrian and bicyclist safety and that have data that can be used to evaluate these countermeasures before and after implementation. The study will use the data identified in the scan to determine the impact each speed-related countermeasure had on behavior outcomes (vehicle speeds, number of pedestrian/bicyclist crashes and conflicts, and pedestrian/bicyclist injury severity). The second phase of the study will be a prospective evaluation of the most effective speed-related countermeasures identified in the first phase.

NHTSA, USD385,673.00, Active

State of Knowledge in Older Drivers

The objective of this project is to produce a report in which each chapter contains a comprehensive systematic literature review that summarizes, evaluates, and synthesizes research published since 1999 on topics related to older driver safety. The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) has previously published periodic ?State of Knowledge? reports on a variety of behavioral safety topics. However, the current project represents the first on issues related to older drivers. The current project will apply systematic review procedures to comprehensively identify and evaluate the quality of studies on a selection of topics related to older driver safety. Each chapter of the Older Driver State of Knowledge report will describe the selected studies, aggregate findings across studies, and weigh study quality to provide a synthesis of the best evidence to date on the topic. The Older Driver State of Knowledge report is intended to be a reference document for both in-house use and use by other Federal agencies, State Highway Safety Offices, and other partners. The report will also be of use to officials involved in licensing decisions, health care practitioners who advise older patients about fitness-to-drive, and researchers within the field of aging and older driver safety.

OST, USD382,474.00, Active

Evaluation of a Change in a State's Blood Alcohol Content Per Se Law to an Alternative of 0.08

This project will evaluate the effects of a State lowering their Per Se limit to other than 0.08 BAC on alcohol-related crashes, impaired driving arrests, driver knowledge and awareness of the BAC Per Se Limit, perceived risk of detection and arrest for driving impaired by alcohol and the effects on alcohol sales.

NHTSA, USD631,000.00, Active

National Survey of Drowsy Driving Knowledge, Attitudes and Behaviors

In the United States a number of surveys have asked drivers if they have fallen asleep while driving, and the survey results have shown which demographic characteristics are predictive of falling asleep while driving. These surveys have also shown that the public sees drowsy drivers as a dangerous risk on the roads. In recent years there have been a number of drowsy driving laws proposed throughout the United States, and laws were recently passed in New Jersey and Arkansas. Unfortunately not much is known about drowsy driving knowledge or attitudes, or how laws may impact these characteristics. The primary objective of this project is to conduct a nationally representative survey of a randomly selected sample of drivers on their attitudes, behavior and awareness of drowsy driving. A secondary objective is to collect additional survey data in New Jersey and/or Arkansas. Understanding the public?s attitudes and knowledge is an important step in designing and deploying education and other countermeasures that will impact the incidence of drowsy driving across the United States.

NHTSA, USD1,130,397.00, Active

State-Level Roadside Study of Drug and Alcohol Driving

Roadside studies obtain substance use information from drivers randomly selected from the roadway ? at the time of their driving event ? thus providing the most accurate data on the use of alcohol and other drugs while driving. This project will enable the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration to assist States in conducting prevalence surveys of drug and alcohol use by drivers.

NHTSA, USD1,332,000.00, Active

Low or No (LoNo) Emission Component Assessment Program

This project is intended for testing, evaluation, and analysis of low or no emission (LoNo) components of LoNo transit buses used to provide public transportation. The program provide unbiased assessments of low- or no-emission vehicle components, documenting maintainability, reliability, performance, structural integrity, efficiency, and noise of the tested components.

FTA, USD1,500,000.00, Active